Linear Response

MagneticGaugeCorrection
Section: Linear Response
Type: integer
Default: gipaw

For magnetic linear response: how to handle gauge-invariance in the description of the coupling of electrons to the magnetic field.
Options:


ResponseMethod
Section: Linear Response
Type: integer
Default: sternheimer

Some response properties can be calculated either via Sternheimer linear response or by using finite differences. You can use this variable to select how you want them to be calculated, it applies to em_resp and vib_modes calculation modes. By default, the Sternheimer linear-response technique is used.
Options:


Linear Response::Casida

CasidaCalcForces
Section: Linear Response::Casida
Type: logical
Default: false

(Experimental) Enable calculation of excited-state forces. Requires previous vib_modes calculation.


CasidaCalcForcesKernel
Section: Linear Response::Casida
Type: logical
Default: true

If false, the derivative of the kernel will not be included in the excited-state force calculation.


CasidaCalcForcesSCF
Section: Linear Response::Casida
Type: logical
Default: false

If true, the ground-state forces will be included in the excited-state forces, so they are total forces. If false, the excited-state forces that are produced are only the gradients of the excitation energy.


CasidaCalcTriplet
Section: Linear Response::Casida
Type: logical
Default: false

For a non-spin-polarized ground state, singlet or triplet excitations can be calculated using different matrix elements. Default is to calculate singlets. This variable has no effect for a spin-polarized calculation.


CasidaHermitianConjugate
Section: Linear Response::Casida
Type: logical
Default: false

The Casida matrix is Hermitian, so it should not matter whether we calculate the upper or lower diagonal. Numerical issues may cause small differences however. Use this variable to calculate the Hermitian conjugate of the usual matrix, for testing.


CasidaKSEnergyWindow
Section: Linear Response::Casida
Type: float

An alternative to CasidaKohnShamStates for specifying which occupied-unoccupied transitions will be used: all those whose eigenvalue differences are less than this number will be included. If a value less than 0 is supplied, this criterion will not be used.


CasidaKohnShamStates
Section: Linear Response::Casida
Type: string
Default: all states

The calculation of the excitation spectrum of a system in the Casida frequency-domain formulation of linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) implies the use of a basis set of occupied/unoccupied Kohn-Sham orbitals. This basis set should, in principle, include all pairs formed by all occupied states, and an infinite number of unoccupied states. In practice, one has to truncate this basis set, selecting a number of occupied and unoccupied states that will form the pairs. These states are specified with this variable. If there are, say, 15 occupied states, and one sets this variable to the value "10-18", this means that occupied states from 10 to 15, and unoccupied states from 16 to 18 will be considered.

This variable is a string in list form, i.e. expressions such as "1,2-5,8-15" are valid. You should include a non-zero number of unoccupied states and a non-zero number of occupied states.


CasidaMomentumTransfer
Section: Linear Response::Casida
Type: block
Default: 0

Momentum-transfer vector for the calculation of the dynamic structure factor. When this variable is set, the transition rates are determined using an exponential operator instead of the normal dipole one.


CasidaPrintExcitations
Section: Linear Response::Casida
Type: string
Default: write all

Specifies which excitations are written at the end of the calculation.

This variable is a string in list form, i.e. expressions such as "1,2-5,8-15" are valid.


CasidaQuadratureOrder
Section: Linear Response::Casida
Type: integer
Default: 5

Only applies if CasidaMomentumTransfer is nonzero. Directionally averaged dynamic structure factor is calculated by averaging over the results from a set of \(\vec{q}\)-vectors. The vectors are generated using Gauss-Legendre quadrature scheme [see e.g. K. Atkinson, J. Austral. Math. Soc. 23, 332 (1982)], and this variable determines the order of the scheme.


CasidaTheoryLevel
Section: Linear Response::Casida
Type: flag
Default: eps_diff + petersilka + lrtddft_casida

Choose which electron-hole matrix-based theory levels to use in calculating excitation energies. More than one may be used to take advantage of the significant commonality between the calculations. variational and lrttdft_casida are not usable with complex wavefunctions. Note the restart data saved by each theory level is compatible with all the others.
Options:


CasidaTransitionDensities
Section: Linear Response::Casida
Type: string
Default: write none

Specifies which transition densities are to be calculated and written down. The transition density for the many-body state n will be written to a file called rho_0n prefixed by the theory level. Format is set by OutputFormat.

This variable is a string in list form, i.e. expressions such as "1,2-5,8-15" are valid.


CasidaWeightThreshold
Section: Linear Response::Casida
Type: float
Default: -1.

Specifies the threshold value for which the individual excitations are printed. i.e. juste-h pairs with weight larger than this threshold will be printed.

If a negative value (default) is set, all coefficients will be printed. For many case, a 0.01 value is a valid option.


Linear Response::KdotP

KdotPCalcSecondOrder
Section: Linear Response::KdotP
Type: logical
Default: false

If true, calculates second-order response of wavefunctions as well as first-order response. Note that the second derivative of the Hamiltonian is NOT included in this calculation. This is needed for a subsequent run in CalculationMode = em_resp with EMHyperpol.


KdotPCalculateEffectiveMasses
Section: Linear Response::KdotP
Type: logical
Default: true

If true, uses kdotp perturbations of ground-state wavefunctions to calculate effective masses. It is not correct for degenerate states.


KdotPEta
Section: Linear Response::KdotP
Type: float
Default: 0.0

Imaginary frequency added to Sternheimer equation which may improve convergence. Not recommended.


KdotPOccupiedSolutionMethod
Section: Linear Response::KdotP
Type: integer
Default: sternheimer_eqn

Method of calculating the contribution of the projection of the linear-response wavefunctions in the occupied subspace.
Options:


KdotPUseNonLocalPseudopotential
Section: Linear Response::KdotP
Type: logical
Default: true

For testing purposes, set to false to ignore the term \(-i \left[\vec{r}, V\right]\) in the \(\vec{k} \cdot \vec{p}\) perturbation, which is due to non-local pseudopotentials.


KdotPVelMethod
Section: Linear Response::KdotP
Type: integer
Default: grad_vel

Method of velocity calculation.
Options:


Linear Response::Polarizabilities

BornChargeSumRuleCorrection
Section: Linear Response::Polarizabilities
Type: logical
Default: true

Enforce the acoustic sum rule by distributing the excess sum of Born charges equally among the atoms. Sum rule: \(\sum_{\alpha} Z^{*}_{\alpha, i, j} = Z_{\rm tot} \delta_{ij}\). Violation of the sum rule may be caused by inadequate spacing, box size (in finite directions), or k-point sampling (in periodic directions).


EMCalcBornCharges
Section: Linear Response::Polarizabilities
Type: logical
Default: false

Calculate linear-response Born effective charges from electric perturbation (experimental).


EMCalcMagnetooptics
Section: Linear Response::Polarizabilities
Type: logical
Default: false

Calculate magneto-optical response.


EMCalcRotatoryResponse
Section: Linear Response::Polarizabilities
Type: logical
Default: false

Calculate circular-dichroism spectrum from electric perturbation, and write to file rotatory_strength.


EMEta
Section: Linear Response::Polarizabilities
Type: float
Default: 0.0

The imaginary part of the frequency, effectively a Lorentzian broadening for peaks in the spectrum. It can help convergence of the SCF cycle for the Sternheimer equation when on a resonance, and it can be used as a positive infinitesimal to get the imaginary parts of response functions at poles. In units of energy. Cannot be negative.


EMForceNoKdotP
Section: Linear Response::Polarizabilities
Type: logical
Default: false

If the system is periodic, by default wavefunctions from a previous kdotp run will be read, to be used in the formulas for the polarizability and hyperpolarizability in the quantum theory of polarization. For testing purposes, you can set this variable to true to disregard the kdotp run, and use the formulas for the finite system. This variable has no effect for a finite system.


EMFreqs
Section: Linear Response::Polarizabilities
Type: block

This block defines for which frequencies the polarizabilities will be calculated. If it is not present, the static (\(\omega = 0\)) response is calculated.

Each row of the block indicates a sequence of frequency values, the first column is an integer that indicates the number of steps, the second number is the initial frequency, and the third number the final frequency. If the first number is one, then only the initial value is considered. The block can have any number of rows. Consider the next example:

%EMFreqs
31 | 0.0 | 1.0
1 | 0.32
%



EMFreqsSort
Section: Linear Response::Polarizabilities
Type: logical
Default: true

If true, the frequencies specified by the EMFreqs block are sorted, so that they are calculated in increasing order. Can be set to false to use the order as stated, in case this makes better use of available restart information.


EMHyperpol
Section: Linear Response::Polarizabilities
Type: block

This block describes the multiples of the frequency used for the dynamic hyperpolarizability. The results are written to the file beta in the directory for the first multiple. There must be three factors, summing to zero: \(\omega_1 + \omega_2 + \omega_3 = 0\). For example, for second-harmonic generation, you could use 1 | 1 | -2.


EMKPointOutput
Section: Linear Response::Polarizabilities
Type: logical
Default: false

Give in the output contributions of different k-points to the dielectric constant. Can be also used for magneto-optical effects.


EMMagnetoopticsNoHVar
Section: Linear Response::Polarizabilities
Type: logical
Default: true

Exclude corrections to the exchange-correlation and Hartree terms from consideration of perturbations induced by a magnetic field


EMOccupiedResponse
Section: Linear Response::Polarizabilities
Type: logical
Default: false

Solve for full response without projector into unoccupied subspace. Not possible if there are partial occupations. When EMHyperpol is set for a periodic system, this variable is ignored and the full response is always calculated.


EMPerturbationType
Section: Linear Response::Polarizabilities
Type: integer
Default: electric

Which perturbation to consider for electromagnetic linear response.
Options:


EMWavefunctionsFromScratch
Section: Linear Response::Polarizabilities
Type: logical
Default: false

Do not use saved linear-response wavefunctions from a previous run as starting guess. Instead initialize to zero as in FromScratch, but restart densities will still be used. Restart wavefunctions from a very different frequency can hinder convergence.


vdWNPoints
Section: Linear Response::Polarizabilities
Type: integer
Default: 6

How many points to use in the Gauss-Legendre integration to obtain the van der Waals coefficients.


Linear Response::SCF in LR calculations

LRConvAbsDens
Section: Linear Response::SCF in LR calculations
Type: float
Default: 1e-5

The tolerance in the absolute variation of the density response, to determine if the SCF for linear response is converged. \(\varepsilon = \int {\rm d}^3r \left| \rho^{out}(\bf r) -\rho^{inp}(\bf r) \right|\). A zero value means do not use this criterion.


LRConvRelDens
Section: Linear Response::SCF in LR calculations
Type: float
Default: 0.0

The tolerance in the relative variation of the density response, to determine if the SCF for linear response is converged. \(\varepsilon = \frac{1}{N_{\rm elec}}\) LRConvAbsDens. A zero value means do not use this criterion.


LRMaximumIter
Section: Linear Response::SCF in LR calculations
Type: integer
Default: 200

The maximum number of SCF iterations to calculate response.


LRTolAdaptiveFactor
Section: Linear Response::SCF in LR calculations
Type: float
Default: 0.1

This factor controls how much the tolerance is decreased during the self-consistency process. Smaller values mean that tolerance is decreased faster.


LRTolIterWindow
Section: Linear Response::SCF in LR calculations
Type: float
Default: 10

Number of iterations necessary to reach the final tolerance.


LRTolScheme
Section: Linear Response::SCF in LR calculations
Type: integer
Default: tol_adaptive

The scheme used to adjust the tolerance of the solver during the SCF iteration. For kdotp and magnetic em_resp modes, or whenever HamiltonianVariation = V_ext_only, the scheme is set to tol_fixed, and this variable is ignored.
Options:


Linear Response::Solver

LRTolFinalTol
Section: Linear Response::Solver
Type: float
Default: 1e-6

This is the tolerance to determine that the linear solver has converged.


LRTolInitTol
Section: Linear Response::Solver
Type: float
Default: 1e-2

This is the tolerance to determine that the linear solver has converged, for the first SCF iteration. Ignored if LRTolScheme = fixed.


LinearSolver
Section: Linear Response::Solver
Type: integer
Default: qmr_symmetric

Method for solving linear equations, which occur for Sternheimer linear response and OEP. The solvers vary in speed, reliability (ability to converge), and domain of applicability. QMR solvers are most reliable.
Options:


LinearSolverMaxIter
Section: Linear Response::Solver
Type: integer
Default: 1000

Maximum number of iterations the linear solver does, even if convergence is not achieved.


Linear Response::Static Polarization

EMCalcDiagonalField
Section: Linear Response::Static Polarization
Type: logical
Default: true

Calculate yz-field for \(\beta_{xyz}\) hyperpolarizability, which is sometimes harder to converge. Only applies if ResponseMethod = finite_differences.


EMStartDensityIsZeroField
Section: Linear Response::Static Polarization
Type: logical
Default: true

Use the charge density from the zero-field calculation as the starting density for SCF calculations with applied fields. For small fields, this will be fastest. If there is trouble converging with larger fields, set to false, to initialize the calculation for each field from scratch, as specified by the LCAO variables. Only applies if ResponseMethod = finite_differences.


EMStaticElectricField
Section: Linear Response::Static Polarization
Type: float
Default: 0.01 a.u.

Magnitude of the static electric field used to calculate the static polarizability, if ResponseMethod = finite_differences.


EMVerbose
Section: Linear Response::Static Polarization
Type: logical
Default: false

Write full SCF output. Only applies if ResponseMethod = finite_differences.


EMWriteRestartDensities
Section: Linear Response::Static Polarization
Type: logical
Default: true

Write density after each calculation for restart, rather than just the resulting electronic dipole moment. Only applies if ResponseMethod = finite_differences. Restarting from calculations at smaller fields can be helpful if there are convergence problems.


Linear Response::Sternheimer

HamiltonianVariation
Section: Linear Response::Sternheimer
Type: integer
Default: hartree+fxc

The terms to be considered in the variation of the Hamiltonian. The external potential (V_ext) is always considered. The default is to include also the exchange-correlation and Hartree terms, which fully takes into account local fields. Just hartree gives you the random-phase approximation (RPA). If you want to choose the exchange-correlation kernel, use the variable XCKernel. For kdotp and magnetic em_resp modes, or if TheoryLevel = independent_particles, the value V_ext_only is used and this variable is ignored.
Options:


Preorthogonalization
Section: Linear Response::Sternheimer
Type: logical

Whether initial linear-response wavefunctions should be orthogonalized or not against the occupied states, at the start of each SCF cycle. Default is true only if SmearingFunction = semiconducting, or if the Occupations block specifies all full or empty states, and we are not solving for linear response in the occupied subspace too.


Linear Response::Vibrational Modes

CalcInfrared
Section: Linear Response::Vibrational Modes
Type: logical
Default: true

If set to true, infrared intensities (and Born charges) will be calculated and written in vib_modes/infrared.


CalcNormalModeWfs
Section: Linear Response::Vibrational Modes
Type: logical
Default: false

If set to true, the response wavefunctions for each normal mode will be calculated and written in directory restart/vib_modes/phn_nm_wfs_XXXXX. This part is time-consuming and not parallel, but not needed for most purposes.


Displacement
Section: Linear Response::Vibrational Modes
Type: float
Default: 0.01 a.u.

When calculating phonon properties by finite differences (CalculationMode = vib_modes, ResponseMethod = finite_differences), Displacement controls how much the atoms are to be moved in order to calculate the dynamical matrix.


SymmetrizeDynamicalMatrix
Section: Linear Response::Vibrational Modes
Type: logical
Default: true

If set to true, all entries of the dynamical matrix will be calculated and then the matrix will be symmetrized to enforce \(D_{ij} = D_{ji}\). If set to false, only the upper half of the matrix will be calculated.